Paraphrasing exercise for journalism students and GMAT /CAT/ GRE/SAT aspirants

February 23, 2013 at 9:46 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Model paraphrasing answer — line by line, paragraph by paragraph. Answer typed in blue letters in brackets ….. (Passage from The Independent)

UK sells arms to Sri Lanka’s brutal regime

[UK’s arms sales to Sri Lanka’s brutal regime goes on un-abated]

Exclusive: Government database shows that sales continue despite litany of rights abuses

[Exclusive: Government statistics show unrelenting arms trade despite appalling record of rights violations]

The Queen meets Sri Lanka’s President Mahinda Rajapaksa at a reception in London last June

[The Queen gives an audience to Sri Lankan President Mahindra Rajapaksa last June.]

Britain is selling millions of pounds worth of small arms and ammunition to Sri Lanka despite the country’s dire human rights record, The Independent can disclose today.

[The Independent can assert that Britain sells millions of pounds of arms and ammunitions to the Sri Lankan government besmirched by grave human rights abuses.]

Figures taken from the Government’s own database show how the authorities in Colombo have gone on a buying spree of British small arms and weaponry worth at least £3m.

[Government data point to how British arms trade with Sri Lanka has proceeded apace to exceed 3 million pounds.]

Some of the items sold to Sri Lanka include pistols, rifles, assault rifles, body armour and combat shotguns – despite the Foreign Office still classifying the South Asian nation as a “country of concern” for rights abuses.

[Britain has classified Sri Lanka as a ‘country of concern’ for the latter’s abysmal human rights record, but still has gone ahead to sell small arms, assault rifles, and similar offensive weapons.]

The sales indicate how far President Mahinda Rajapaksa’s government has been welcomed back into the international fold by Britain, despite the behaviour of his armed forces during the brutal last few months of the 2009 civil war.

[The arms sales have signaled the return of the government of President Rajapaksa to the international community notwithstanding the barbaric acts perpetrated by his armed forces in the last few months of the end of the 2009 civil war.]

The conflict was the culmination of a 30-year conflict with violent Tamil Tiger separatists and resulted in the deaths of between 60,000 and 100,000 people over a four-month period, most of whom were civilians.

[The conflict that resulted in the death of some 60,000 to 1,00,000 civilians, was the bloodiest chapter of the three decades old armed insurgency led by Tamil separatists.]

Both sides were accused of human rights abuses and although the Sri Lankan government won a comprehensive victory against the Tigers, it has since resisted international calls for an independent investigation into well-documented allegations that Sri Lankan Army soldiers were involved in rape, torture, extra-judicial killings and the deliberate targeting of civilians.

[The war marked by human rights abuses by both sides ended in a comprehensive Sri Lankan army’s victory. However, gruesome accounts of rape, torture and targeted killings by Sri Lankan soldiers shook the conscience of the world. The Sri Lankan government has, so far, brazenly defied all calls for an international enquiry into the conduct of the rampaging army.]

Learn the use of the underlined words  in the answer parts typed in blue, within brackets.



Macavity by Eliot — Note for young readers

February 21, 2013 at 10:09 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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The poem Macavity – The Mystery Cat
by T S Eliot

(Poem in greenish blue, my paragraphwise  notes in red)

This poem is best known of T.S. Eliot’s Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats. This is the only book Eliot wrote for younger audience.
Macavity is, in all likelihood, a notorious, but extremely wily and villainous human being given to committing daring crimes. The most efficient detective agencies fail to apprehend him, although they are sure the crime is committed by Macavity.

Macavity’s a Mystery Cat: he’s called the Hidden Paw–
For he’s the master criminal who can defy the Law.
He’s the bafflement of Scotland Yard, the Flying Squad’s despair:
For when they reach the scene of crime–Macavity’s not there!

Macavity is agile, cunning, and a master of deceit. Soon after a crime is reported, the Scotland Yard and the Flying Squad swing into action to catch him, but he succeeds in throwing them off his trail.

Macavity, Macavity, there’s no on like Macavity,
He’s broken every human law, he breaks the law of gravity.
His powers of levitation would make a fakir stare,
And when you reach the scene of crime–Macavity’s not there!
You may seek him in the basement, you may look up in the air–
But I tell you once and once again, Macavity’s not there!

Macavity breaks laws with virtual impunity, because he manages to evade arrest by the anti-crime establishment. He is gifted with the power to defy the forces of gravity. He uses this asset to accomplish his hideous plans. He flees the spot of the crime with alarming ease and speed, outsmarting the police. In all cases, his lightening speed of escape frustrates the police.

Macavity’s a ginger cat, he’s very tall and thin;
You would know him if you saw him, for his eyes are sunken in.
His brow is deeply lined with thought, his head is highly doomed;
His coat is dusty from neglect, his whiskers are uncombed.
He sways his head from side to side, with movements like a snake;
And when you think he’s half asleep, he’s always wide awake.

Macavity is scrawny, with deeply set eyes. He appears to be immersed in his scheming always. His forehead’s contracted muscles show his thoughtful mood, as do his brows. He wears an un-kempt coat, apparently a result of his trying to avoid the glare of the mainstream society. His whiskers are not trimmed and combed. Engrossed in his criminal plans, he sways his head often. His gait is serpentine, possibly a sign of his absent-mindedness.

Macavity, Macavity, there’s no one like Macavity,
For he’s a fiend in feline shape, a monster of depravity.
You may meet him in a by-street, you may see him in the square–
But when a crime’s discovered, then Macavity’s not there!

Macavity is devilish, vile and a threat to society. He moves around in the alleys and the squares. But, when a crime is committed, he just vanishes in to thin air.

He’s outwardly respectable. (They say he cheats at cards.)
And his footprints are not found in any file of Scotland Yard’s.
And when the larder’s looted, or the jewel-case is rifled,
Or when the milk is missing, or another Peke’s been stifled,
Or the greenhouse glass is broken, and the trellis past repair–
Ay, there’s the wonder of the thing! Macavity’s not there!

Macavity maintains a façade of innocence and decency. He does not cheat while playing cards and there is no dossier of his in the archives of the Scotland Yard. However, when crimes like looting of a food store, or break-in at the jeweller’s, stealing of milk, breaking of greenhouse galas, it becomes clear that these are the handiwork of no one other than Macavity. Surprisingly, in none of these cases, Macavity is caught.

And when the Foreign Office finds a Treaty’s gone astray,
Or the Admiralty lose some plans and drawings by the way,
There may be a scap of paper in the hall or on the stair–
But it’s useless of investigate–Macavity’s not there!
And when the loss has been disclosed, the Secret Service say:
“It must have been Macavity!”–but he’s a mile away.
You’ll be sure to find him resting, or a-licking of his thumbs,
Or engaged in doing complicated long division sums.

Even in very serious cases like the loss of papers relating to a Treaty at the Foreign Office, or loss of Royal Navy’s plans and drawings, some related papers are discovered in the vicinity of the crime, but Macavity seems to have been nowhere near the crime when the heist happened. Secret Service agents clearly see Macavity’s hands in the crime, but Macavity, the master dodger, is found to be too far away from the spot to be implicated in the crime. To the anguish of the agents trailing him, he would be found to be quietly resting in a different location licking his thumbs or doing some calculations.

Macavity, Macavity, there’s no one like Macacity,
There never was a Cat of such deceitfulness and suavity.
He always has an alibit, or one or two to spare:
And whatever time the deed took place–MACAVITY WASN’T THERE!
And they say that all the Cats whose wicked deeds are widely known
(I might mention Mungojerrie, I might mention Griddlebone)
Are nothing more than agents for the Cat who all the time
Just controls their operations: the Napoleon of Crime!

It is evident that Macavity was a criminal plotter who could manipulate other criminals like Mungojerrie or Griddlebone. He was the remote control of myriad crimes who effortlessly threw sands in the eyes of the investigators. He was a trickster, plotter, and manipulator, all rolled into one. A repugnant criminal, he could be called the ‘Napoleon of Crime’.

—————————————.-=—————- END —————————————–.=——-

Demographic density variation — How school students can understand it

February 17, 2013 at 4:06 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment
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NCERT – Geography –Class 8 — Why population density on earth varies from place to place …..

If we go back to 2600 BCE to the time the Mohenjo-daro and Harappa civilization started, we will see a clear trend among human beings to settle down near river banks where water was available perennially and land was fertile. The early settlers generally avoided mountainous terrains with extreme climates. The same trend is visible even today. People flock to areas / regions / countries which are conducive to peaceful and comfortable living. In short, demographic variance in the world can be attributed to the following two types of factors.

Geographical Factors

a. Topography .. Plain, arable and accessible lands attract human beings because people can survive and prosper by engaging in economic activities. The Gangetic plain is far more habitable than the mountainous Northwest Frontier Provinces (NWFP) of Pakistan.

b. Climate .. In India, Bangalore offers the most salubrious climate. This is the reason why it has become the fastest-growing city in Asia. The vast Siberian plains of Russia, although rich in forests and mineral wealth, do not attract settlers because of their harsh winter. So, extreme climates repel people, where as moderate climate attracts.

c. Soil .. Pakistan’s farming lands in the Punjab region are famous for their fertile soil. The vast expanse of vacant lands in Baloochistan are no match to Punjab’s farm lands. This partly explains why the population density in Baloochistan is so less compared to Punjab’s.

d. Water .. Life can not be sustained without water. This is why the water-starved technology hub Chennai scares away many settlers. River valleys around the world have historic cities and towns because of this reason.

e. Mineral wealth .. This is a major pulling factor in this age of industries and technology. The oil-rich Middle East became much more populated after the oil-find in the late 1940s. Townships have sprang up in the mineral-rich regions of Russia with extreme climates because of this predominant economic reason.

Social, cultural and economic factors …

Social … Countries which provide equitable social environment attract people. Example – The United States of America remains the most-favoured destination for migrants. Similarly, inside a country, cities that offer abundant welfare facilities and non-discriminatory environment attract people. Example — Bangalore and Pune of India.

Cultural … Cities such as Jerusalem, Benaras, Paris and New York attract culture-loving migrants.

Economic … People value their livelihood most. This is why migrants from different parts of India flock to live in the appalling slums of Mumbai. This explains why illegal immigrants from Sri Lanka undertake risky sea voyages to Australia, and African immigrants land in the shores of Italy.


Environment matters -How the perception has changed in the last thirty years

February 14, 2013 at 1:29 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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NCERT – Civics – Class 8 – How was environment treated earlier? How has the perception changed in recent years?

Answer … The Second World war that ended in 1944 had left the industrial giants like Japan, Germany, France and Italy in total ruins. Great Britain was mauled badly. America, being the war-goods supplier, emerged vibrant and thriving.

Soon after the dust of the war settled down, Japan and the war-ravaged Europe started their frenzied rebuilding efforts. Many other parts of Asia and Africa, particularly India, South Korea, Thailand, Indonesia began to industrialize themselves. Their economies grew, so did the buying capacity of their citizens. This revived the world economy, resulted in a mushrooming of factories in most parts of the world. More factories meant more goods of myriad descriptions, more effluents entering soil and water bodies, more release of carbon dioxide from coal-burning power plants, nitrous oxide gases, carbon tetrachloride and a relentless pumping of automobile exhaust gases to the atmosphere.

The inevitable happened. Rivers and lakes got contaminated. The ozone layer got depleted exposing the earth to sun’s ultra-violet radiations. The ocean’s fish reserve was exploited un-sustainably and most tragically, too much green-house gases in the atmosphere formed a thermal blanket around the earth. This trapped the sun’s heat. The earth’s temperature began to rise melting the glaciers and heating the ocean.

Such inexorable slide towards destructive alteration of earth’s environment attracted widespread attention of the scientists, engineers, politicians and environment groups. By the early 1970’s, the perils of rampant industrialization and the generation of toxic wastes of factories became a matter of widespread concern. Almost all scientific studies pointed to irreversible damage to the biosphere. The whole human race realized that senseless generation and disposal of wastes must be curbed.

Happily for all of us, the perception that the earth is impervious to all exploitation, and we can continue to live our lives as usual has began to change. Now, even a student in a rural school in India realizes the importance of the tree; the urban housewife feels how hazardous is the innocuous plastic bag, and the power engineers see that the days of coal-burning for power are numbered. The sight of a wind mill cheers a ten-year-old kid as much as it symbolizes hope to his forty-year-old father. Switch to sustainable forms of energy generation is the bye-word now. So many species of fish and marine lives in seas, brought so dangerously close to extinction, are regaining numbers. We all have realized we can not waste water and power. The world’s technologists are developing innovative ways to exploit solar energy. India is emerging as the world’s biggest solar power hub.

Thus, thanks to the hard work of thousands of scientists, engineers, planners and activists, the looming clouds of destruction of mother earth’s environment seem to recede, albeit slowly. Better late than never.

Full convertibility — Making sense of it — for the junior students

February 12, 2013 at 3:48 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Convertibility of the Indian rupee …..

What it means? ..

It means anyone holding Indian rupees in any amount can convert it to other currencies like the American dollar, the Euro, the Japanese Yen or the Pound Sterling of the U.K., on 24X7 basis round the year. We can buy a bottle of Coke in any remote village of Africa, if we have any of the above four currencies. But, the Coke dealer is more likely to refuse to accept the Indian rupee for the Coke he sells. This reluctance to have our Indian rupee accepted as the means of payment is true for multi-million dollar transactions related to import-export trade.

The reason is simple. The Rupee is not an international currency. It is not freely convertible. One needs the permission of the Reserve Bank of India to convert large amounts of rupees to convert large amounts of Indian Rupees to any other international currency. The Indian rupee is acceptable at its face value within the geographical borders of the country. Outside India, it does not become altogether worthless, but loses its value sharply.

What will India gain by making the Indian Rupee convertible?

India will gain immensely by making the Rupee fully convertible. Inflow of foreign investments in the form of FDI and FII will rise sharply. That means rapid industrialization, more jobs, more exports and more revenue for the government. It is a rosy situation indeed.

What will India lose by making the Rupee freely convertible? …

It may bring total financial disaster to the country in a matter of days! Speculative currency traders can buy up Indian rupees in huge amounts and then release them in the market in equal manner. In such a case, the value of the Rupee will nosedive in the market. To avoid such a crash of the Rupee, the RBI will have to pump in dollars in huge amounts to buy up the excess Rupee being offered for sale. For this, the RBI will need to spend its dollar reserves. But, the RBI’s dollar reserve is limited. After a few days, the RBI will exhaust all its dollar reserves. After this tipping point is reached, the Rupee’s value will suffer a free-fall, making it a worthless currency in the international market.

India will then become bankrupt. Soon, the currency traders will go for the kill buying up huge amounts of Rupee at throw-away prices. It, in effect, will mean mortgaging the whole country to a few currency traders. Nothing can be more ruinous and humiliating for India.

How countries like America, the United Kingdom, Japan and the EU avoid such speculative attack by currency traders?

They have such huge reserves that no single or group of currency traders will dare to do speculative trading in their currencies. If they ever do it, they themselves will become bankrupt.

When will India be able to make its Rupee fully convertible?

The Indian government is progressively and very cautiously moving towards convertibility. Presently, the Rupee is convertible in the capital account only. This easing of convertibility has helped industries to import capital goods by converting their rupee holding to dollar with little hassles. For India to be able to make the Rupee fully convertible, the following conditions will have to be met.

a. India will have to increase its foreign exchange reserves greatly- say, by 200 to 300 percent or even more.

b. India will have to reduce its inflation rate and budget deficit to realistic levels.

c. India has to increase its exports greatly so that the current account shows a healthy surplus.

With India’s GDP plummeting to 5%, this appears a distant dream.


NCERT Civics lessons on India for Class 8 students

February 11, 2013 at 10:31 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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NCERT – Civics – School level (Class 8) Why foreign investors come / do not come to India ..

Foreign investors come to India mainly through two different routes. These are ..

a. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

b. Foreign Institutional Investments

For India’s long term interest, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) are more welcome because they result in establishment of new factories and businesses, generate employment, bring technology and management expertise and increase exports.
Foreign Institutional Investors (FII) invest in stocks. They inject life to stock markets, thus bringing vitality to the financial sector. But, such investments are very fluid. They can come in millions of dollars in a single day, and go away in the same measure the next day. So, their real usefulness to economy is always much less than that of FDI.

Why foreign investors come to India …

The attractions of India as a destination for FDI are as below.

a. Relatively cheaper wage of workers, both white and blue-coloured.

b. Huge domestic market

c. Availability of abundant skilled manpower in almost all sectors

d. Most people know English

e. Democracy and stable government, and broadly, respect for law

f. Fair judicial system – not biased in favour of local / government sides

g. Open economy allowing repatriation of profits and capital

h. Good growth record of economy in the last decade


What repels the prospective foreign investors from coming to India …

The factors are …

a. Atmosphere of corruption and crony capitalism

b. Very opaque legal framework in respect of acquiring natural resources such as 2G spectrum, coal, natural gas, mines and agricultural land

c. Unstable internal political system with so many regional parties pushing their own agenda at the cost of national interests

d. Corrosive effect of corruption scams and investigations on senior bureaucracy —- Senior civil servants do not take decisions

e. Both mainstream political parties, the BJP and the Congress have leaders bankrupt in vision

f. Unduly aggressive environment groups often ill-informed on different sides of an issue

g. Internal insurgency in the form of Maoist elements, centrifugal forces in the north-east and a restive Kashmir region

h. Tendency of the law-makers to change tax laws retrospectively as in the case of tax demands on Vodafone

i. No effort being made for bringing about full convertibility of the Indian rupee

j. High budget deficit year after year and high inflation

k. Reluctance of the government to allow un-restricted entry of foreign capital in multi-brand retail, banking, insurance, aviation and education

l. General apathy of the public towards foreign companies entering any field related to agriculture


NCERT —- Civics —– Class 8 — Why is law enforcement necessary? —

For civilized existence and orderly economic growth, a country must have laws. These laws may relate to civil, criminal, environmental, company or labour matters. The laws, framed by the parliament, will have to be followed in letter and spirit. The police and inspectors from various departments are entrusted with the responsibility of enforcing the law. But, the police and the government inspectors can’t punish the law-breaker, be it individuals, companies or the government. This power of letting off an innocent person, or punishing the guilty is given to the judiciary and different tribunals of the government.

Thus, we see that in law enforcement, the parliament, the police and the government inspectors, the judiciary and, most importantly, the common citizens play a role. If the common citizens choose to break the law as a matter of habit, no police or army can enforce laws.


NCERT – Civics – Class 8 – How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair?

The government frames laws from time to time to protect the interests of producers of goods, farmers, consumers and small artisans by providing them a fair environment to operate in. For doing this, the government may

a. Fix prices of goods

b. Provide subsidies for producer of specific goods

c. Reserve goods for production in specific sectors.

d. Frame laws like the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act (MRTPC Act)

The government has framed the following laws to ensure a fair market to all.

1. Laws relating to farmers and consumers buying farm producer ..

For consumersThe government fixes the prices of essential commodities like wheat, rice, kerosone, petrol etc. to ensure that the consumers are not needlessly harassed.

For farmers … During the time of paddy, rice, sugarcane etc., there is a glut of these items in the market. As a result, their prices fall sharply. Farmers in need of cash in those days, are forced to sell their produce at unworkable rates. This hurts them grievously, often leading to their suicide.

To prevent such agrarian distress, the government declares minimum prices of these goods well before the harvesting season. Additionally, it opens procurement centres to buy the commodities from the farmers.

2. For protecting small artisans in the textile sectors .. In rural areas, weavers produce items like Lungi, Sarees, Bed covers etc. The government has passed laws to prohibit the large textile mills from producing these items, because if they do so, the village artisans can’t compete with them. It will throw the village weavers out of their profession.


A Sadhu shows the way —

February 8, 2013 at 1:16 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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A Spinning Master’s show of self-less love

Shrikant Narayan Das had the job of a spinning master in a textile mill in Ropar, Punjab. One day, he heard a call from deep within his heart. Some one beckoned him to dedicate himself to world’s good in the most unusual way — by renouncing the world.

Shrikant Narayan left his cozy job, his precious farm land and his society to become an ascetic. Thus, started his life’s most arduous journey of penance. He set up an Ashram in the banks of the Ganges to become a Sadhu. One day, he found a sick and emaciated baby lying abandoned outside his Ashram. For the Sadhu, who has relinquished the world, it was a very unusual find. Either he had to let the sick baby perish, or try to do something to provide him medical care to save his life. The Sadhu pondered the matter and concluded that compassion must win over his vow of renunciation. He arranged for the baby to be given some basic treatment. Miraculously, the baby survived.

The Sadhu’s happiness knew no bounds as he had succeeded in bringing the baby back from the jaws of certain death. But, a Sadhu’s Ashram was certainly no place for a child to grow up. He hoped that his parents would soon come to claim the child. But, no one came. Days and weeks and months went by. None came. The Sadhu was left with the most awesome baggage – a small child to rear! Again, the Sadhu’s compassionate soul prevailed over his worldly feelings. He reared the child with fatherly care.

However, there were people who thought otherwise. They felt the Sadhu had ulterior motives. They accused the Sadhu of fraud and kidnapping. The protesters wanted the child to be handed over to an orphanage. As per government rules! The Sadhu knew how appalling the conditions in the orphanages were — akin to the workhouse where Oliver Twist lived. Far from caring for the inmates, the orphanages make the children escape to the streets to lead their lives as urchins.

The Sadhu had none of the suggestions. He did not let the child go to an orphanage. The protests became more shrill. But, the Sadhu stood his ground. His stubborn stand finally made the protesters leave the child in the Ashram. Now, the child named Bajrangi by his godfather is a three-year-old happy kid growing up in the Ashram, oblivious of his past.

The Sadhu now takes as much care of the child as the frugal environment of his Ashram permits. He teaches the child regularly, from 4am daily. When media persons covering the Kumbh Mela visited the Ashram, the Sadhu showed how Bajrangi counts up to 25 and learns Hindi and English alphabets.

Lost in the din and bustle of the Kumbh Mela, this extraordinary act of compassion and care stands out as a shining example of self-less love, away from publicity and glare.


The many uses of ‘by’ — Lessons in good writing

February 6, 2013 at 12:13 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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The many uses of ‘by’ ……….

‘By’ meaning ‘before’……

a. With regard to Carbon Dioxide emissions, India has to achieve the targeted reduction of 15% by 2020.

b. As per the agreement with my publisher, I need to finish writing this book by December.

c. The tourist must leave America by the last day of December as her visa expires on the first of January next year. (In all these instances ‘by’ means ‘before’.)


‘By’ meaning a location …

a. The burglars ran away into the woods leaving their car by the way-side eatery.

b. Leaving my cycle by the grocer, I walked to my friend’s house.

‘By’ meaning a quantum of something …

a. England defeated India in the last one-day match by a big margin of 56 runs.

b. The temperature of the patient suffering from typhoid rose by the miniute.

c. The U.S. government increased the import duty on shrimps by 15% to protect domestic shrimp producers. (Here ‘by’ means a certain quantity of something.)

‘By’ meaning a certain period …..

a. Bats hunt by night.

b. The return train to Peshawar travels by night.

c. The corporation garbage trucks work by night. (Here ‘by’ means a certain period.)

‘By’ means concerning or pertaining to ….

a. On the death of her prodigal son, the woman did not feel any remorse because she had done her duty by him.

b. The wife lovingly told her husband, “Anything you do is alright by me.”

‘By’ means a certain way of addressing …

a. In Hindu Brahmin families, wives seldom call their husbands by their names as a show of respect.

b. In MNCs, even the junior most employee can call his President by his first name without causing any offence, because that is the accepted way.

‘By’ as adverb …..

a. As years went by, the woman put on weight attracting some good-humoured criticism from her husband.

b. As I was waiting in the bus stop alone in the dead of night, a glistening car passed by.

‘By’ in phrases ….

a. By and by ..

The couple seems to have a fight on every issue. As it appears, they will separate by and by. (It means ‘eventually’.)

b. By and large ..

The political meeting had representatives from many feuding factions. By and large, the meeting passed off peacefully. (It means ‘on the whole’ / everything considered)

By oneself .. After separation from her husband, the woman lives by herself.   (It means ‘alone’.)

The many uses of ‘with’ — Lesson on good writing

February 5, 2013 at 2:37 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Correct uses of the word ‘with’ ………..

a. On the day of the inauguration of the new school building, the Chief Minister with his wife arrived exactly in time and proceeded to cut the symbolic tape. (Here you may write ‘accompanied by’ in place of ‘with’.)

b. Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the Hindu reformer, who opposed idolatry and the many rituals practiced by shrewd Brahmins, had to pay a heavy price for his revolutionary ideas. He died on consuming the food laced with poisons. This act was perpetrated by his detractors. (Here you may write ‘mixed with’ in place of ‘laced with’.)

c. Masala Dosa with Sambar is the most popular breakfast of most south Indians.

Roti with mutton curry is the most popular lunch of most Pakistanis. (In both cases, ‘with’ can be replaced by ‘and’.)

d. The girl with sun glasses who came on to the dais stole everyone’s attention. She was the Chief Minister’s daughter.
The young man with a red tie was finally selected for the job. (In both cases, ‘with’ means ‘wearing’.)

e. The burglar succeeded in cutting the chain with a pair of pliers before entering the backyard.
The cook cut the large fish with a sharp kitchen knife. (Here ‘with’ means ‘by the help of’.)

f. The nurse filled the bowl with vegetable soup and kept the bowl in the dinner tray of the patient.
The commando filled his bottle with rum before embarking on the mission. (Here ‘with’ means pouring one liquid to a container.)

g. My father was with the Tatas for thirty long years. He spurned many alluring offers from other companies because none of them had the same tradition of ethical values as the Tatas.
Presently, I am with the RSB. (Here ‘with’ means ‘working under’.)



h. In the early years of Putin, British Petroleum was locked in a bitter row with the Russian government over the oil exploration rights in the Sakhalin gas and oil fields.
An unsavoury slanging match with the supporters of the guest team made the home team supporters to apologize over the PA system when tempers cooled down.  (Here ‘with’ means ‘between’.)

i. ‘Leave it with me,’ said the Head Nurse to her assistant who was struggling to put the oxygen mask on the extremely restless patient. (Here ‘with’ means ‘transferring responsibility.’)

j. ‘Responsibility comes with marriage,’ said the father who was admonishing his son for not saving enough for his future. (Here ‘with’ means something happening with some other thing.’)

k. The Vice President is in charge at the White House as the President is down with high fever and the doctors have advised him complete rest in bed. (Here ‘with’ means ‘because of’.)

l. Opportunist politicians in South Asia change their allegiance to the winning party quite unabashedly. They always swim with the current. (Here ‘with’ means ‘along a trend’.)

m. During the last economic crisis, bank managements retrenched those employees whose services could be dispensed with without disrupting the main functions of the bank. (After ‘dispense’, ‘with’ has to come.)

n. ‘I am very angry with you,’ said the wife to her husband who had come home very late. (Never write ‘on’ in place of ‘with’.)

NCERT History — How the Rowlatt Act set in motion India’s freedom struggle

February 1, 2013 at 10:50 am | Posted in Uncategorized | 9 Comments
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NCERT History lesson – Chapter ‘The Making of the National Movement’ — Rowlatt Act ..

Rowlatt Act – During the First World War, citing the need for maintaining domestic peace, the colonial government had passed certain legislations under the name of Defence of India Regulation Act. Later, its tenure was indefinitely extended by the Rowlatt Committee, headed by its chairman Sir Sydney Rowlatt. The legislations known as the Rowlatt Act were passed by the Imperial Legislative Council.

Even a cursory reading of the provisions of the Rowlatt Act shows how unfair, oppressive and draconian the Act was. Under this Act, a person accused of inciting terrorist activities against the British colonial government

a. had to face an in-camera hearing

b. no material offending the government could be printed by any press including those of reputed newspapers

c. arrests could be made without warrant

d. detention of the accused could be indefinitely extended

e. the accused could be imprisoned for up to five years

f. on release, he could be prohibited from indulging in any political, social or religious activities.

In reality, it was a naked assault on liberty, human rights and freedom of speech and expression. Most educated Indians reviled its provisions, where as for colonial administrators it came as a handy weapon to nip in the bud any form of dissent against British rule.

The Act proved to be too pungent for Gandhi, who had a British degree in Law and who had returned from South Africa after a successful fight against similar colonial practices there. The sweeping powers given by the Rowlatt Act to stifle protest defied logic.

The Rowlatt Act came into force in March, 1919. The brutal shooting in the Jaliwanlalbagh in the same year that killed and maimed scores of innocent men, women and children was the culmination of this Act. It set in motion a forceful and irreversible push towards freeing India from British yoke.

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