NCERT History Class 9 — The French Revolution -Part 1

April 29, 2013 at 1:53 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | 4 Comments
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NCERT History Class 9 — The French Revolution … Part 1

In 1788, there was a massive crop failure in France as a result of which bread prices rose sharply in the country. The discontent among the poorer sections of the population was widespread. Soon, it boiled over to the streets of Paris triggering a bloody revolution that eventually engulfed the whole of France like wild fire. The ramifications of this inferno were felt all over Europe and in many other parts of the world.

The spiraling bread prices were like the proverbial straw that broke the camel’s back. By no means, high bread prices could have unseated a centuries-old monarchy and razed a feudal structure that had prevailed over the French society with a iron grip.

Over the last three centuries, students of history have dispassionately tried to delve into the causes of this historic upheaval. Their conclusions almost converge on certain socio-economic factors, although the emphasis varies.

It is now clear that many factors were simultaneously tormenting the soul of France. First, there was the monarch who was given the status of god. Armed with the authority to rule the country till he desired, the monarch wielded unlimited power with absolutely no accountability. Such un-fettered authority defied rational scrutiny. ‘Absolute power corrupts absolutely’. No wonder, the absolute monarch was seeped in luxury, ensconced in his massive Versailles palace. Evening guests comprising of sycophants, favor seekers, beautiful women and a few opportunists from the nobility flocked to his parties. It gave these guests an opportunity to pander to the sovereign’s whims and fancies. Such peccadilloes left  the monarch degenerated and drained. He had no time to ‘rule’. The gulf between the suffering subjects and the aloof ruler only widened with time.

For centuries, France, through a utterly deviant system of feudalism, had divided its population into three classes –
a. Clergy (known as the first estate)
b. Nobles (the second estate) and
c. Common masses comprising of the peasants, the factory workers and members of the bourgeois (the third estate).

Numerically, the members of the third estate vastly exceeded the other two groups. The third estate paid almost all the government revenue through taxes. The Clergy and the Nobles paid practically no taxes. To make matters worse, they enjoyed many privileges unthinkable for the common folks. The members of the third estate toiled in the fields, farms and factories, ran small businesses, worked as professionals, fought as soldiers and did everything else that sustained the country. But, in terms of privileges, status, impunity from prosecution for wrongdoings, land ownership and other such state privileges, they were at the lowest rung of the ladder. The members of the Clergy and the Noble lived like pampered parasites with generous largesse from the government .

Clearly, such a distorted system of social hierarchy was untenable in the long run. With passage of time, in the French populace the fault lines lengthened and the schisms became wider.

Bad fiscal management and the obscenely lavish lifestyle in the Versailles brought France’s government finances to a pitiable state. By the time King Luis XVI ascended the throne, France had run up a yawning deficit of some two billion livers. It was an unsustainable deficit that made government’s day to day functioning difficult.

Soon, France was embroiled in a war in America trying to free 16 provinces from colonial rule of the old rival Britain. It was a military intervention that was morally right, but financially ruinous. It added another one billion livers to the existing two billion livers deficit to the French exchequer.

France had clearly crossed the red line. Bankruptcy stared France in her face. The burgeoning deficit of the government disturbed the existing creditors. In panic, they began to charge a high 10% interest on their loans to the government. It became evident that the government must take urgent and drastic steps to restore the financial health of the nation. It needed to beef up its revenue, cut expenses and embark on a long term course of fiscal consolidation. But, this course correction seemed an uphill task.

The traditional tax payers — the people in the third estate — were already reeling under a high taxation regime. The other two sections of the population – the Clergy and the Nobles – were quite affluent, but hardly paid any tax. When the idea was mooted to tax them to boost the government’s revenue receipts, they resisted the idea tooth and nail.

It was a Catch 22 position for the government headed by King Luis XVI. Finally, the day of reckoning had arrived. The indulgence in the royal court gave way to some serious pondering. Sadly, the King, through his degraded life style, had virtually mortgaged his authority to the Clergy and the Nobles. These people forming a miniscule proportion of the population had the temerity to defy the King. Despite clearly seeing that the country was speeding towards financial collapse due to un-even taxation base, they refused to heed any call for reform which entailed reduction of their privileges.

Historians are unanimous in their opinion that the vacillating monarch gave too long a rope to the small number of privileged people whom he could easily have forced to fall in line, but that was not to be. The King could not muster enough courage to take on the Clergy and the Nobles. Thus, France continued to drift with an indecisive monarch at the helm.

The impasse continued as the fiscal position worsened and the people of the first and second estates (Clergy and the Nobles) hardened their stand against attempts to bring them under the tax net. The monarch went back and forth brooding over the apparently intractable problem. An ominous storm was brewing in the horizons of France.

————End of part 1. Second part tomorrow————–

READ RUSSIAN REVOLUTION ELSEWHERE IN THE BLOG.

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NCERT English -The man who knew too much–Relooking Pvt. Quelch

April 27, 2013 at 3:30 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | 10 Comments
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The Man who knew too much

by Alexander Baron ….

Reassessing Private Quelch …

Private Quelch, the army recruit around whom the story ‘The Man Who Knew Too Much’ has been written, is a much maligned person. This story forms part of the English text book in countless schools across the world. Sadly, students and teachers often treat this profoundly learned person of astounding scholarship and boundless energy with mockery, calling him boastful, vainglorious, arrogant, pretentious etc.

I feel Private Q is unfairly treated by the community of teachers and students. This man of learning should be idolized and not vilified. His fate, unfortunately, had put him in an army camp rather than in a academic hub.

My justification ….

To read further click here

Coalgate investigation –The government tries to manipulate it.

April 27, 2013 at 9:07 am | Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment
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Central Bureau of Investigation disgraced, yet again

The UPA government has browbeaten the premier investigative agency, the CBI, so brazenly and with such frequency that people talk about the agency with great degree of sarcasm and cynicism. In case after case, starting from Lalu Prasad to Mayawati to Mulayam and later in the infamous 2G, the CBI has been castigated by the Supreme Court with such periodicity that its cowering before the political bosses in Delhi no longer attracts any revulsion in the minds of the country’s citizens.

That the CBI is being manipulated by the UPA to prolong its stay in power is common knowledge. Leaders not supporting the UPA feel the full heat of the CBI’s coercive powers. Jagan Reddy languishes in jail, not so much because his father swindled government money, but because he has taken a political position not palatable to the UPA managers. One can go on and on to cite cases where the CBI director willingly or through coercion has acted as a stooge of the political bosses in Delhi.

The damage to morale of the many bright and honest officers of CBI caused by such shameless subordination to a morally bankrupt UPA is enormous. It can never be repaired as successive governments irrespective of the parties leading them will continue to use the CBI to beat down their opponents. In fact, one can see that the situation will get murkier in the years to come.

India’s international reputation in pursuing criminals, tax dodgers and corrupt politicians has already plummeted to very pitiable levels. This directly vitiates the FDI atmosphere. The results are already showing.

To add to this list of ignominious actions of the CBI has come the revelation that it ‘shared’ its Coalgate investigation report with the Law ministry, the PMO, and a few other ministries who are under the scanner for past wrong-doings. The CBI director has said this in a sworn affidavit to the Supreme Court. It is a very serious matter that amounts to gross interference in the working of the CBI. The law Minister will of course maintain that the report was just ‘shared’, not tampered with by it. But, in the eyes of the public and the Supreme Court, this will not wash.

The Law Minister had done everything to keep his actions under wraps, but it leaked out. On whose bidding was he trying to have a preview of the report? The PMO’s office does not quite cover itself with glory in this matter. Is the Prime Minister in control of his office? If not, who pulls the strings?

Now, it has become increasingly evident that Raja kept the PMO always in the loop as he continued to manipulate the spectrum allocation process to his advantage. Was Dr. Man Mohan Singh party to Raja’s decisions that led to the humongous loot of the government treasury? Dr. Singh might escape legal scrutiny of his actions. But, the future historians of India will surely have very uncharitable words to describe his tenure as the prime minister. He will go down in history as a man who sold his soul for the lure of office.

Coming back to the ‘sharing’ of the CBI report, the agency must be gearing up for another reprimand from the Supreme Court. The CBI lawyer, to soften the Court’s wrath, might submit that future reports will not be ‘shared’. This is childish. The Supreme Court should give the CBI and other departments some deterrent punishment so that such flouting of procedures does not recur.

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Prof J.C. Bose, the Indian scientist who deserved the Nobel

April 25, 2013 at 2:25 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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J.C. Bose: The Indian scientist who blazed a new trail both as a scientist and a nationalist

Even the most skeptical western observer today agrees that Prof. J.C. Bose should have own the Nobel Prize for his many path-breaking discoveries spanning Physics, Biology and Chemistry.

The credit for discovery of the wireless should have gone to him rather than to Marconi. But, in the European psyche, an Indian scientist from a British colony simply did not deserve it. Here is his full story (Written by Parthasarathy, published earlier in The Hindu in 2002)

Click here to read further

 

NCERT Class 9 English — A Dog Named Duke by William D. Ellis (paraphrasing)

April 22, 2013 at 11:09 am | Posted in Uncategorized | 24 Comments
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Paraphrasing of

A Dog Named Duke

by William D. Ellis

(Learn the underlined words)

Para 1 .. It is a story of 1953. Chuck Hooper was a strong, well-built young man bubbling with energy. Athletic and friendly, he had been a footballer during his university days. Now, he worked for a chemical company as its Zonal Sales Manager. A happy life appeared to lay ahead of this six-feet-one tall man exuding a great zest for life.

To read further click here

NCERT class 9 English – Sudha Murty’s ‘How I taught my ..’

April 18, 2013 at 5:07 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Paraphrasing of

How I Taught My Grandmother to Read

written by Sudha Murty

 

Para 1 … I was about twelve then. I lived with my grandparents in a North Karnataka village. Transport to this place was quite basic / rudimentary. Life seemed to move rather slowly. The morning paper came in the afternoon. The weekly magazine came a day late. We waited with baited breath for the bus that carried these and the day’s post.

Para 2 … Triveni, the story writer, was a household name during those days. Her stories revolved around common folks. In her typical lucid style, she deftly handled the intriguing problems of the many common people portrayed in her writings. Sadly, this talented Kannada writer died very young. Nearly four decades after Triveni’s demise, the enduring attraction of her books continues to charm the hearts of countless readers.

To read further, click here.

 

Use of MAY and MIGHT — Removing the common confusion

April 12, 2013 at 5:38 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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When to use ‘may’ and when to use ‘might’? –the South Asian students’ constant dilemma

Uses of ‘may’ ….

The verb may is used in five main ways. These are

1. To talk about a possible situation:

North Korea may fire its medium range rockets within a day or two.

BJP may project Narendra Modi as their prime ministerial candidate.

She may lose her job soon.

2. To politely ask for permission to do something:

May I introduce the chief guest of today?

May we now leave for the station?

3. To politely give someone permission to do something:

The nurse told the patient, “John, you may open your eyes now.”

Ten miniutes into the flight the airhostess announced, “Passengers, you may use your cell phones now.”

4. To admit that something is the case before stating a contrasting fact:

The food may not look attractive, but it is very nutritious.

The girl may not look pretty, but she is very good at her work.

5. To express a wish or hope:

May God bless you.

May you have another half century of happy married life.

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Uses of ‘might’ …

a. ‘Might’ is the past tense of ‘may’. Strict grammarians insist on using ‘might’ only as a past tense of ‘may’.

The new variety of seeds may germinate in just two days time.


Last night’s storm might have damaged the weak wall of the temple.

b. For describing something which could have been the case in the past, we use ‘might’. ( if we go strictly by the rules of grammar.)

Seeing his spectacular improvement in hockey, we can assume that he might have been getting training under an expert coach.

However, in modern-day English this distinction is generally not strictly taken note of. It is acceptable to use ‘may’ or ‘might’ interchangeably’. The speaker / writer is free to use either may and might to talk about the present/future or the past.

1. Present or future event

The Congress Party thinks it may be doing the right thing in projecting Rahul Gandhi as the next prime minister of India. (Use of ‘may’ is correct here.)

The Congress Party thinks it might be doing the right thing by projecting Rahul Gandhi as the next prime minister of India. (Use of ‘might’ is also correct here.)

2. Past event

I might have forgotten to lock my room when I left. (Correct)

I may have forgotten to lock my room when I left. (This is also correct.)

Then, what are the distinctions between the use of ‘may’ and ‘might’?

It is safe to conclude that ‘may’ and ‘might’ are normally interchangeable when talking about possible situations. However, for writers preparing legal or technical documents, teachers teaching in schools, and editors doing editing of newspapers and magazines, there are some clear differences in the usage between ‘may’ and ‘might’. It is essential for the writer / speaker to correctly judge if ‘may’ or ‘might’ is more appropriate in a certain situation.

1. ‘May have’ versus ‘might have’

If you are unsure about the facts pertaining to a past situation at the time of speaking or writing, you can use ‘may have’ or ‘might have’:

I think that the ‘Glamourous Attorney’ comment of President Obama about Ms. Kamala Harris may have offended some people.

I think that the ‘Glamourous Attorney’ comment of President Obama on Ms. Kamala Harris might have offended some people.

If you’re describing a situation that might have happened in the past, but did not happen, it is preferable to use ‘might have’:

The pilot assured the ground control that he was well, but he might have been badly hurt. (Writing like this is correct.)

The pilot assured the ground control that he was well, but he may have been badly hurt. (Wrong. Don’t use ‘may have’.)

2. Degrees of possibility

Some experts in modern-day English usage are of the view that it’s proper to use ‘may’ when one thinks the chances of something being the case are likely, and to use ‘might’ when it is unlikely. However, such a rule is bound to be interpreted differently as the judgment differs from person to person.

America may stop importing crude oil in the near future.
[The speaker believes that there’s a fairly good chance that America will be self-sufficient in crude oil production and will, therefore, stop all oil imports.]

The nurse looked as if she might have been on duty for 48 hours without a single hour of rest.
[The speaker was not very sure about the number of hours the nurse had been on duty, but made an approximate guess.]

However, it’s preferable to use might rather than may if you’re talking about an imaginary scenario:

If I were a Tamil, I might view the war record of the Sri Lankan government differently.
[I’m not a Tamil, I’m a Chinese talking about a theoretical situation]

If you go for early morning jog, you might feel better at work.
[I think that perhaps you would feel better at work if you went for a jog early in the morning]

3. Direct to Indirect speech

You should change may into might when changing a sentence from direct to indirect form:

I may be dismissed from service if I drink while on duty. [A policeman’s actual words]

The policeman said that he might be dismissed from service if he drank while on duty. [indirect speech]

4. To show disgust and disapproval

If you want to express your feeling of strong disgust and disapproval of some one’s conduct, you should always use might rather than may:

You might have told me that the car is low in petrol! (This is correct.)

You may have told me that the car is low in petrol! (This is wrong.)

The whole world hopes that India and Pakistan might be able to understand each other’s position on Kashmir better. (This is correct.)

The whole world hopes that India and Pakistan may be able to understand each other’s position on Kashmir better. (This is wrong.)

5. Polite requests and suggestions

When politely or formally making a request, asking for information, or making a suggestion, might is regarded as preferable to may:

Don’t you think this shirt might be a little tight for him?

Might I ask the President to examine the precedents when such constitutional crises emerged in the past?

6. Expressing a desire or hope

If you want to express a desire or hope, then may is always the correct word to use:

May God bless you with a child soon! (Correct)

Might God bless you with a child soon! (Wrong)

7. Asking for and giving permission

When politely asking for permission to do something, it’s acceptable to use may or might, but nowadays might is regarded as too formal. May is considered more polite than the most typical way of asking permission in English, using can:

May I borrow your cycle? [Polite]

Might I borrow your cycle? [Polite and too formal]

Can I borrow your cycle? [Less polite; considered by some to be incorrect usage.]

When giving (or refusing) permission, only may and can are acceptable:

Yes, you may (borrow my cycle). [Polite]

Yes, you can (borrow my cycle). [Less polite]

Yes, you might (borrow my cycle). [Wrong]

No, you may not (borrow my cycle). [Polite]

No, you can’t (borrow my cycle). [Less polite]

No, you might not (borrow my cycle). [Wrong]

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Aircraft Carriers — Why India needs them

April 10, 2013 at 9:21 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Aircraft Carriers

 

Introduction.  ……

Armed forces have three wings –
a. Army for warfare on land
b. Air force for combat in the skies and assisting the armed forces in their operations
c. Navy for war in the seas, protect the country’s maritime routes, and destroying enemy’s infrastructure close to the shore

The main purpose of the armed forces is to defend the borders of the country in land, sea and air. Since offence is a part of defence, armed forces have to go to enemy territory to destroy targets such as railway stations, bridges, roads, petrol depots, factories, army bases, ammunition stores, and of course, enemy’s ships and fighter planes. By doing this, armed forces reduce the capacity of the enemy to continue fighting.

An important duty of navy is to ensure that ships bringing imported goods to our ports and taking export goods to foreign customers make their voyage without any risk of enemy attack. Simultaneously, navy tries to disrupt shipping activities of the enemy by attacking any ship coming to or going from their ports and also by attacking and destroying its ports.

This, generally, is the function of any armed force of any country, big or small. For large and powerful nations, it often becomes necessary to ‘project’ its armed might in far off places — in enemy or friendly territories. For example, if America is able to intervene in North Korea today, it is because its navy was present in the seas close to the Korean peninsula. When belligerence of North Korea becomes too hostile to bear, the armada of American navy assisted with the South Korean armed forces will come near North Korea to confront it.

There are political and economic reasons for a country like America, Russia, China Britain and France to show to the rest of the world that they can intervene in any location of the world if their interests are affected. Such capacity gives these powerful nations a lot of influence and clout in the world. Small countries fear these powerful countries, and generally do not do anything to harm their interest.

The creation and maintenance of such naval force far away from a country’s shores costs a lot of money. These naval fleets have all types of attack ships. Main among these is the Aircraft Carrier.

An aircraft carrier is a huge naval ship which carries helicopters and fighter jets. By using these assets, the fleet can sail close to the hostile territory and start bombing enemy positions effectively.

To understand this, imagine India having to attack Pakistani positions close its western border, adjoining Afghanistan. None of Indian Air force planes can fly such long distances, attack the enemy targets and safely return to their bases. They can not carry so much fuel to make the to and fro sorties. This apart, Pakistani radars will spot them and send fighter planes to destroy them.

To solve this problem, India can send a heavily-guarded and well-defended aircraft carrier close to Karachi. After reaching there, fighter jets from the aircraft carrier can take off, attack the desired enemy positions in Krachi’s vicinity, and return to the aircraft carrier. Thus, the problem of distance can be solved by deploying an aircraft carrier.

America has to protect Taiwan from China. Through a treaty it has to offer protection to Japan and South Korea from North Korea. To be able to do this, it has to permanently station large offensive capability in places thousands of miles away from its own borders. This logistical problem is somewhat reduced by deploying aircraft carriers in the area.

Aircraft carriers are huge ships with a relatively long landing pad. This acts as the runway for the fighter jets it carries. The jets are specially made to need much shorter landing and take off strips compared to the normal fighter jets operating from land. Apart from these modified jets, the aircraft carrier has to store sufficient bombs, rockets and missiles for use by the jets.

It is also necessary to permanently house pilots, maintenance staff, navigation staff, medical crew etc. aboard the aircraft carrier. All these push up the need for space in the aircraft carrier. So, the designers of aircraft carriers make the best use of the space available.

In the end, we get a ship which is huge, sophisticated and costly.
Very few nations need to project their armed capability in far-off places. Still fewer can afford the astronomical cost of an aircraft carrier.

It takes almost 8 to 10 years to build such a costly and high–tech naval ship.
The technology used by a country in aircraft building is quite advanced. So, it wants to keep it as a secret.

Because of these two reasons, aircraft carriers are generally not available for sale. When a sale is made, it is done to a friendly country only, never to a hostile country.

Why India needs an aircraft carrier?

Military planners in India feel that India must have a large and powerful navy to be able to project its force in distant seas and lands. Such a navy is called a ‘blue-water navy’, because it operates in deep sea far away from the country’s ports.
China has a ‘blue-water’ navy. It wants to dominate the Indian Ocean area.
So, it is essential that India has matching naval power. To have this, Indian navy should have at least two or three aircraft carriers.

India’s only aircraft carrier INS Vikrant has been decommissioned (put out of use) in 1997 after a long and illustrious period of service. During the 1971, India-Pakistan war, bomber aircrafts from INS Vikrant bombed the then East Pakistan’s (now Bangladesh) Chittagong and Cox Town ports. Bombing of such distant targets would have been impossible for Indian Air Force fighter planes then.

India’s next acquisition … India is buying her next aircraft carrier from Russia.

It is a 290 meter long 40,000 ton ship. An old ship by the name of Admiral Grazkhov was lying in a Russian ship yard for scrapping. India bought it and asked the Russians to refit it completely with the most modern devices, arms, aircrafts and radars. After refitting, it will become a very advanced and powerful ship with formidable offensive capacity. It will have Mig 29K , HAL Tejas and Sea Harrier aircrafts. It’s delivery by the Russians has been delayed considerably. India will be able to commission it only in 2014. Its name will be INS Vikramaditya. It will have a range of 8000 miles.

A lot of price negotiations had to be done to close the price part of the deal.
India is also building a second aircraft carrier of a little smaller size. It will be commissioned in 2014. Its name will be INS Viraat.

With these two aircraft carriers, Indian navy can reach far off targets in the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea.

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GSLV -PSLV –India’s space strides -facts to know

April 9, 2013 at 3:55 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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PSLV and GSLV (some basic facts)

Full form — PSLV stands for Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. GSLV stands for Geo-stationary Launch Vehicle.

Weight and applications — Both are meant to carry satellites to space. The weight of a satellite may vary from 0.1kg to 4500 kg. Those with weights 0.1 kg to 1.0 kg are called nano satellites. Like their weights the applications of the satellites may vary greatly. It can be designed to conduct small scientific experiments, observe the ocean or the land surfaces, monitor weather conditions, spy on enemy troop movements, measure forest covers, offer high end communication services like telephone or TV transmissions, carry human beings, goods etc.. So the aim of a satellite can be purely scientific, civilian or military.

How high are the satellites kept in the sky —- Depending on their application they may be kept at distances of 6 to 7 kilometers to very large distances like 35000 kilometers above the earth. (A passenger aircraft like the Boeing 747 flies at a height of 10000 meters above the earth.)

How are the satellites lifted to such heights-— Rockets carry the satellites to the desired heights. The larger the payload (actual load of the satellite) and higher the distance, the stronger is the rocket’s power. The rocket does not travel very long in the sky. Its journey time is just about a few minutes. So within this small frame it has to generate a huge quantity of energy (thrust) by burning fuel at a extremely fast rate. This is the main challenge for the rocket engineers.

What are challenges for the engine designers? .. The main problem is to get a fuel which can release huge amount of energy in a short time. Scientists use solid and liquid propellants. The fuel is burnt in different stages. It can be two or three or even four depending upon the type of rocket. For the last stage of firing cryogenic engines (engines having fuel cooled to extremely low temperatures) are used. It is very difficult to fabricate such engines.

We were importing these engines from Russia till such imports were stopped at the behest of America because we did not sign the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty).With great effort Indian engineers of ISRO have designed and fabricated a cryogenic engine which was tested in the test bed in a laboratory. In the forthcoming GSLV launch scheduled for December the first Indian designed and Indian-built cryogenic engine will be used to fire the fourth and last stage of the rocket.

What is the main difference between the PSLV and GSLV rockets? In lifting power PSLV is less powerful than the GSLV rockets. A PSLV rocket can lift upto 1000kg of load. A GSLV rocket can lift something between 2500 to 4500 kg of load. All communication satellites like the Insat series ones are heavy. They weigh more than 2500 kg. Since India’s own GSLV rockets have not been tried and perfected yet, we get our communication satellites launched by the French Ariane rockets paying a hefty fee.

A PSLV rocket puts the satellite in a polar orbit. It means that the satellite circles the earth in exactly 24 hours. But its path passes the North and the South poles. A person observing the satellite in Bangalore will get to see it only for a few minutes in a day when the satellite crosses the Bangalore sky. As it moves away in its orbit it will become invisible to the observer.

A satellite sent by a GSLV rocket, however, travels in an orbit at a speed same as the rotational speed of the earth. So the position of the satellite, moving with considerable speed, does not change in respect of a particular position or region on earth. Thus an India-oriented satellite will always be looking down at India offering its communication services twenty four hours a day, 365 days a year. Such satellites are mainly used for our TV and telephonic applications.

How was the recent PSLV launch different? Although the satellite was a PSLV one, it put all the seven satellites in a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO). It means that the seven satellites will revolve around the earth exactly in 24 hours, and will remain fixed at a particular point above the earth. For doing this the rocket had to lift its load to a height of 35000 kilometers.

The heaviest of the seven satellites is named Metsat. It weighs about 964 kg. It will monitor the water temperature of the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. Such temperature monitoring will be analyzed to give valuable data to the fishermen.
By putting the Metsat in the PSLV vehicle, the scientists at ISRO have been able to free that much of space (and weight) in the next communication satellite. So the next communication satellite of India will offer more capability through higher transponder availability.

Why is the next GSLV launch so critical for India? The next GSLV rocket will be fitted with the first Indian designed, Indian manufactured cryogenic engine. It has taken long 11 years to build this engine indigenously.

What commercial benefits a successful Indian GSLV launch can bring? ..  If this launch is successful, India will not only launch its own communication satellites but also offer the same services to other countries in commercial basis. So it will be a competitor to NASA, Ariane, the Russian and the Chinese counterparts. Remember we pay 15 lakh rupees for each kilo weight of the satellite we get launched by Ariane.

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Answers to previous error correction exercise

April 7, 2013 at 12:46 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Answers to the questions posted on April 06, 2013

a. The trainee pilot got low grades for her exams. Therefore, she had to retake them for her flying license.
Or

The trainee pilot got low grades for her exams, and therefore she had to retake them to get her flying license.

b. James went to Mumbai to play cricket.

c. Although our school football team played well, they never looked like winning the tournament.

d. If Tenndulkar were to score a century today he would become the highest century scorer in cricket history.
Or
If Tendulkar scores a century today he would become the highest century scorer in cricket history.

e. The judge had hung his black coat over the back of his chair.

f. My mother may even help you to do your lessons if you ask.

g. The shop was empty except for one old shelf.

h. The teacher said, “I find it as unacceptable that students should be late for my classes.”

i. Suddenly, there was a loud bang from outside.

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