Sentence Correction Exercise for GMAT, CAT &Civil Service exams

December 24, 2015 at 7:55 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Sentence correction exercise …

a. After the shooting down of a Russian air force jet by Turkey, a Russian military spokesman issued a statement. The last sentence read like this.

This flight safety plan ensures that retaliatory fire power must be used to counter any hostile action by Turkey intending to harm our fighter jets. Correct this sentence.

b. In the Annual General Meeting of the company, the Chairman gave a speech. The following sentence formed a part of his speech.
Your company spent significant funds having to build 10 warehouses in different parts of the country. Correct this sentence.

c. The leader of a breakaway group of Indian lawmakers made a short speech before the media saying he, along with his coterie, could come to Delhi for discussion with the President. Part of his speech read like this.
We are to receive an invitation. Correct this sentence.

d. The principal of a college counseled the irate parents of a student who was detained for poor marks saying the student would be given another chance. Part of his advice read like this.
Should he pass the test, he will be promoted to the next class. Correct this sentence.

e. The manager of a canteen was briefing the CEO about the menu and the preferences of the staff. Part of his account read like this.
Some people do not eat carrot soup, but others do. Correct this sentence.

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Answers to Sentence correction exercise …
a. After the shooting down of a Russian air force jet by Turkey, a Russian military spokesman issued a statement. The last sentence read like this.
This flight safety plan ensures that retaliatory fire power will be used to counter any hostile action by Turkey intending to harm our fighter jets.
b. In the Annual General Meeting of the company, the Chairman gave a speech. The following sentence formed a part of his speech.
Your company spent significant funds in building 10 warehouses in different parts of the country.
c. The leader of a breakaway group of Indian lawmakers made a short speech before the media saying he, along with his coterie, could come to Delhi for discussion with the President. Part of his speech read like this.
We will receive an invitation.
d. The principal of a college counseled the irate parents of a student who was detained for poor marks saying the student would be given another chance. Part of his advice read like this.
If he passes the test, he will be promoted to the next class.
e. The manager of a canteen was briefing the CEO about the menu and the preferences of the staff. Part of his account read like this.
Some people do not eat carrot soup, as others do.

[——————————-End———————————]

Understanding Paris Climate talks (COP-21)

December 11, 2015 at 5:29 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

All that you need to know about the Paris Climate talks

To arrest the inexorable increase in the earth’s temperature due to global warming, the United Nations has organized meeting of all the countries. It is being held in Paris. It is known as The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, or COP 21, in short.

What does COP 21 stand for? .. It is the Conference of Interested Parties -21. The number 21 denotes the fact that 20 such meetings have been held earlier. The Paris meeting is the 21st annual session.
Who are the interested Parties? .. Countries who were signatories of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol are known as the parties.

What is United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)….. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty aimed at combating climate change caused by global warming. It sought to accomplish this by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a scientifically acceptable level. The treaty was negotiated at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. It became effective roughly two years later – from March 1994.

The framework set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries. Its other inadequacy was that it contained no enforcement mechanisms.

What is Kyoto Protocol? … The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in the Japanese city of Kyoto in December 1997. It is an international treaty that gave a further lease of life, and took forward the spirit generated by the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Protocol commits State Parties (countries) to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, because it was accepted that

(a) global warming exists and

(b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.

The Kyoto Protocol became effective from February 2005. Nearly 192 Parties (Countries) have adopted this Protocol.

The Protocol has a very important underlying principle. As per the consensus, cutting greenhouse emission and conserving the climate system is the responsibility of all the countries, although it varies greatly from one country to another. It acknowledges the fact that industrially developed nations have contributed greatly to the build-up of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in the years in which they went on adding one factory to another to generate wealth. Poorer and less industrialized nations have contributed much less to the build-up of the obnoxious gases. Hence, the burden of the clean-up responsibility has to be determined on a differential basis.

What is the present issue? .. The earth’s temperature is rising. We are almost about to touch 1.5 degrees Celsius. If unchecked, it may creep to 2 degree Celsius. That would mean disaster of cataclysmic proportions. This slide towards doom would be irreversible, for all practical purposes. Somehow, this rise has to retarded, arrested and, if possible reversed.

Why and how the problem got so worse? … The fast pace of growth of the industrialized nations, unfortunately, contributed to the present day crisis. These countries burnt fossil fuels (mostly coal) with no restraint or introspection. This resulted in the build-up of green-house gases (Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrous Oxide etc.) in the earth’s atmosphere leading to gradual rise in earth’s temperature, also known as global warming.

Why the problem appears so daunting? .. Corrective actions to arrest and subsequently reduce global warming are needed urgently, but are proving to be very difficult to adopt and implement because of the following reasons.

  1. Already, 75% of the maximum permissible build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been used up by the industrialized nations. So, the world has gust a quarter of the space within which, it has to limit and hold its fresh green house gas emission.

  2. In the last few decades, China has sharply increased its coal-based power generation, emerging as the top ‘polluter’ of the world. The United States is in the second position. India is the third largest polluter of the earth’s atmosphere today. China, and especially India are finding it hard to limit their emissions. India has a huge need of electricity to accelerate its economic growth. There is no way India can meet its burgeoning demand for electrical energy other than by burning coal, so abundantly available in the country.

  3. Techno-commercially, other sources of power like nuclear, solar, wind etc. are all bedeviled by one constraint or another. So, top polluting countries like China and India find it very difficult to switch over to other non-coal sources of power.

  4. Without collective and whole-hearted effort, green house gas generation can not be curtailed, but the countries find it hard to reach a consensus as they are in different stages of economic and industrial growth. America, Britain, Japan, the EU countries are very rich and industrially advanced where as countries like India, China are far behind. This leads to a conflict of interest each time discussions are held on charting a global road map for retarding green house gas build-up.

How exactly the earth’s temperature may rise? … It is useful to take a stock of how the average temperature of earth has risen in the last decades and the projections for the future.
During the 50 years period between 1850 to 1900 AD earth’s average temperature was 13.7 degree Celsius. Since then, it has been rising continuously thanks to the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. By the end of 2015, the increase may just exceed one degree Celsius. By 2100AD, even if all 193 nations earnestly agree to cut emissions as stipulated in the COP 21 agreement, the earth’s average temperature rise will touch 2.7 degree Celsius. By 2060, the rise in average temperature might reach 4.5 degree Celsius. This would spell doom for all forms of life on earth.

What the global community wants India to do? … Although India’s per capita consumption of coal is almost one fifth of America’s, and one third of that of the OECD countries, India (along with China) has come under severe pressure from the global community to limit its thermal power generation. The reason is obvious. India’s thermal power generation has gone up sharply and would soar to dangerous levels as it accelerates its pace of economic growth in the coming years. How can India do it? There is no easy answer.

What is INDC? …. It means Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. To bring the intransigent nations like India, China and so many others on board, it was decided to ask the individual nations to voluntarily give an action plan that would list their calibrated road map for limiting emissions in the coming thirty years. Most nations, including India, have submitted their INDCs so far. Some have mentioned caveats such as availability of international monetary assistance to effect switch to green sources of energy.

What does the Indian INDC entail? … India’s own Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) promise to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030, over 2005 levels. This implies that India’s utilization of energy derived from fossil fuel to propel its GDP growth must reduce dramatically in the coming years. As calculated as a percentage of its GDP, the decrease must be at least 33 to 35% by the year 2030.
By any account, this is an uphill task for India whose success in tapping green sources of energy is far from credible. India needs to mobilize huge amount of funds to reorient its energy generation and utilization to reach this target.

What can India do now? ….

——————– To be continued————————- 

Model informal letter to a friend on wild life

December 10, 2015 at 9:26 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Model informal letter to a friend on wild life

                                                               Mysuru
                                                               10.12.2015
Dear Jennifer,

How did you spend your vacation in your village? I am curious to know because it was your first visit to rural India. Did the contrast between your life in Delhi and that in your ancestral village shock you, or was it a pleasant surprise? Tell me all about your sojourn.

Well, I must tell you about my encounter with an elephant herd during my short stay in H. D. Kote town, just a few miles away from Mysore. We had gone there on being invited by my mother’s closest friend Archana Aunty. Oh, what an eventful stay it was! I had read about elephant in my text books, but had never dreamt of seeing one. Here, I saw four of them, together. The herd had strayed into the town, perhaps losing its way, or being lured by the rows of sugarcane crops that hem the town. From Archana Aunty’s house the spot was just about two furlongs away.

I had just finished my breakfast at around 9am when we heard men, women, and children running towards the place where the herd had been spotted. They were shouting, “Elephant, elephant’. I sprang to my feet and followed them. In no time, I made my way to the front of the crowd of onlookers. The sight of the pachyderms froze me in wonder, fear and ecstasy. I joined the crowd in pelting stones, yelling, and jumping.
It was such a stupid thing to do. The elephants felt disoriented and distraught by the frenzied jeering. They could neither move back, nor stand still. The confusion in their minds was apparent from the peculiar grunts they made. I began to realize that we were harassing the elephants. At this point, my mother appeared from nowhere, and pulled me away to the safety of our host’s home, all the time reprimanding me for my foolhardy behavior. ‘They could have mauled you in a second,’ said my mother sternly.
I saw some forest officials reaching there soon after. They pleaded with the crowd to disperse, and not irritate the herd in any manner. Initially, the crowd didn’t heed the advice, annoying the forest staff. But, minutes later, they began to leave the place. The forest staff did certain procedures to guide the herd back to their habitat in the jungle. When I learnt about this, I felt terribly relieved. I felt ashamed for having tormented the animals, though for a brief while.
The scene still haunts my mind. The news appeared in the local newspaper the next day. I am elated for the opportunity for seeing the elephants from such close range, but feel sad to think of the way the villagers dealt with the herd.
It is past 10.30pm, and I must switch off the lights. I will keenly await your letter telling me how you coped with the village life.
Yours lovingly,

[Name]
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Conversational English — Using the right word in the right place

December 1, 2015 at 9:11 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Baby steps to learning conversational English – 15

a. Ahmed had a small real estate agency. Later, he closed his business and joined a big construction company as sales manager. His friend, Muneer met him in the street a few days later. The conversation ran like this.

Muneer – ‘What’s your new job like?’
Ahmed – ‘Mixed. I ……….. having a bit more money, but I ……….. having my own office, and I really ………… having to write a detailed report on every single job I do.’ [Suggested words … admit, appreciate, deny, resent, miss]

b. Ananth is a Training Manager in an airline company. Smitha is the Asst. Training Manager. They have been asked to attend a second meeting of the stewards to brief them about the new hand baggage rules introduced by the management. The conversation runs like this.

Smitha — ‘Ananth, we need to meet the stewards again at 7pm.’
Ananth — ‘Not another meeting. I just ……….. seeing all those people again. Honestly, when Sinha opens his mouth, I just …… screaming. Would you ……… going and taking notes for me? Tell them I am ill, or my grandfather died, or something.’ [Suggested words .. can’t face, imagine, feel like, mind, involve]

c. Sudha is a domestic help recruited by a manpower providing agency. She was assigned to a wealthy man’s house. After working there for just a day, she has come back to the recruiting agency to vent her frustration like this.

Sudha .. ‘They said the job would ……. some light house work. They didn’t …….. cooking, gardening, scrubbing the floor, and dusting the house from end to end. I can’t ….. going another day. I am off.’ [Suggested words …. admit, involve, mention, mind, imagine]

d. Amir is a driver who was involved in an accident. He had to face the court where the prosecution lawyer (a junior working with the Public Prosecutor) grilled him rigorously. This is how the junior lawyer briefed his senior later in the evening.
Junior lawyer .. ‘During my cross-examination, the driver continued to ………… talking on his mobile phone at the time of the accident, and refused to ….. driving dangerously, claiming that he was forced to accelerate in order to ……. hitting an old lady who was crossing the road at that time. [Suggested words involve, appreciate, admit, avoid, deny]

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ANSWERS ……..

a. Ahmed had a small real estate agency. Later, he closed his business and joined a big construction company as sales manager. His friend, Muneer met him in the street a few days later. The conversation ran like this.

Muneer – ‘What’s your new job like?’
Ahmed – ‘Mixed. I admit having a bit more money, but I miss having my own office, and I really resent having to write a detailed report on every single job I do.’ 

b. Ananth is a Training Manager in an airline company. Smitha is the Asst. Training Manager. They have been asked to attend a second meeting of the stewards to brief them about the new hand baggage rules introduced by the management. The conversation runs like this.

Smitha — ‘Ananth, we need to meet the stewards again at 7pm.’
Ananth — ‘Not another meeting. I just can’t face seeing all those people again. Honestly, when Sinha opens his mouth, I just feel like screaming. Would you mind going and taking notes for me? Tell them I am ill, or my grandfather died, or something.’ 

c. Sudha is a domestic help recruited by a manpower providing agency. She was assigned to a wealthy man’s house. After working there for just a day, she has come back to the recruiting agency to vent her frustration like this.

Sudha .. ‘They said the job would involve some light house work. They didn’t mention cooking, gardening, scrubbing the floor, and dusting the house from end to end. I can’t imagine going another day. I am off.’ 

d. Amir is a driver who was involved in an accident. He had to face the court where the prosecution lawyer (a junior working with the Public Prosecutor) grilled him rigorously. This is how the junior lawyer briefed his senior later in the evening.
Junior lawyer .. ‘During my cross-examination, the driver continued to deny talking on his mobile phone at the time of the accident, and refused to admit driving dangerously, claiming that he was forced to accelerate in order to avoid hitting an old lady who was crossing the road at that time. 

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