National Integration — Essay

March 11, 2016 at 3:54 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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                         National Integration

In the Indian context, National Integration is a matter of paramount importance. As an ancient country with mind-boggling diversity of race, religion, language and culture, India relentlessly grapples with fissiparous tendencies. Thanks to a judicious mix of military power, political acumen and sagacious leadership, India has managed to stay united. But challenges crop up periodically from within the country and without. This is the reason why national integration needs to be fostered with the utmost zeal and verve.

In our neighborhood, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and even China struggle to rein in centrifugal forces that tend to tear apart the country. Even rich and advanced democratic countries like Belgium, Spain, the United Kingdom, Canada experience difficulties to hold together. The mighty Soviet Union imploded without a single bullet being fired. The regions that broke away to become independent countries such as the Ukraine, Georgia etc. have themselves been bedeviled by secessionist forces. Quite inexplicably, even the heavily down-sized and truncated Russia has to contend with never-ending insurgency in the tiny Chechnya which aspires to be an independent nation.

 

It is essential to examine what binds nations. Is it religion? If so, why did Pakistan brake apart in 1971? Today, Baluchistan wants to secede to form an independent country. Is it the language and colour of skin of citizens that binds nations? If so, why does Scotland want to secede from the United Kingdom? Is it culture? If so, why Ukraine is disintegrating? So, no single factor can be responsible to make or break a nation state.

 

Political scientists have pondered over the matter for long, and have come to conclude that a combination of un-fulfilled political desires, religious persecution, linguistic hegemony, economic disparity, and above all, an indifferent central leadership can fuel anger and disaffection among smaller ethnic groups to break away from the mother country.

 

India had its bouts of disruptive upheavals in the past. The Tamils, fearing dominance by the Hindi-speaking North wanted to secede in the years after independence. Nehru smothered the demand through persuasion, patience, and accommodation. When the Khalistan forces reared their head, the government used brute police power (led by K. P. S Gill) to wipe their leaders off the soil of Punjab. The festering Naga problem and the pro-Pakistan Kashmir rebels have been more or less contained. But, has the challenge to the unity of India retreated for good? It would be naive to think so.

 

It is worth examining the present dangers to national integration in India. What we see today is a growing isolation of Muslims and Christians who find the interpretation of nationalism by chauvinistic Hindu groups too noxious to live with. Efforts have been made to undermine the liberal principles enshrined in the Constitution by various covert and overt methods by self-seeking politicians. This has caused great unease among the minorities and a vast majority of moderate Hindus. Of late, the Dalits, long disenchanted with the polity of the country, have come under attack from a group of ruling party leaders. They have been portrayed as anti-national, unpatriotic, and disloyal to the country. Such uncharitable characterization of Dalits or for that matter, any other group imperils national integration.

 

A certain political party based in Mumbai claims that the bustling metropolis is meant to benefit only the sons of the soil. Those from other states are treated as interlopers and rent-seekers. Such claims are bizarre, and run counter to the Constitution. To further boost their pseudo-nationalism, the party openly takes avirulent anti-Muslim stand, and goes to the extent of blocking visit of sports teams and artists from Pakistan. The obvious intent is to derive electoral gains, no matter how grievous harm the party does to the unity of the country. Cohesion, inclusiveness, liberal values, and tolerance are alien to the philosophy of such parties.

 

Another creed of politicians needlessly take un-compromising and rigid positions in matter of sharing of national resources such as river water. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu bicker over Cauvery water in summer. This particular problem has defied solution for years, simply because adopting stubborn position helps the parties in power to project themselves as the protectors of the state’s interests. Such naked provincialism needlessly fuels rivalry between the Kannadigas and the Tamils.

 

Karnataka and Maharastra are unfortunately locked in a boundary dispute that becomes more and more intractable as the two states harden their stands. For national integration, such myopic approach in resolving contentious issues proves to be a big hurdle.

 

Another shameful exhibition of intolerance is seen when young students and workers from the North Eastern states are harassed, roughed up in Delhi and Bangalore for the slightest of provocation. The young migrants feel embittered and disaffected. On going back home, they narrate the horror stories before their friends and relations, who seethe in anger against the rest of India. Thus, isolationism grows at the cost of integration.

 

Almost in the whole of North and in parts of Western India, Biharis are looked down upon as stupid, uncouth, and boorish. This is despite the fact that Bihar produces the highest number of civil service officers and IIT graduates on per capita basis. In doing manual labour in farms and factories, Biharis outperform people from all other states. Such gritty and brainy people from Bihar suffer humiliation because of the entrenched prejudice against them. How can they be expected to be seamlessly integrated to the rest of India when they are treated with scorn and ridicule?

 

The venomous exchange of diatribes between the Telugus of Telengana and Andhra Pradesh is a unique case of politicians succeeding in separating people with the same blood, same language and the same culture. Such is the power of self-seeking politicians in turning one brother against the other for narrow interests.

 

It is heartening to note that an institutional mechanism in the form of National Integration Council is in place to address dangers to national integration. Started by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1961, this Council has the chief minister of all the states as its members. The Council deliberates on various issues endangering social harmony in the country and suggests measures to counter them. So far, the results have been mixed, but even its critics concede that it surely has helped in bridging differences and healing wounds in the body politic of the nation.

 

In conclusion, all of us need to realize that India today stands at a crossroads. If we stand united, bury our intolerance, and treat everyone as equal citizens of the country, we will propel our country to the zenith of power and prosperity. On the other hand, if we give short shrift to the spirit of the Constitution, fail to take everyone on board, and eschew inclusiveness, we will sink to the level of failed states like Somalia and Syria. In India’s rise lies the world’s rise: in India’s fall lies the world’s fall, because we make up one sixth of the mankind.

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PRECIS WRITING EXERCISE WITH ANSWER

March 10, 2016 at 5:38 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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PRECIS WRITING

The Happy Prince
by Oscar Wilde

Write the precis of the following …

First part of the story ….

High above the city, on a tall column, stood the statue of the Happy Prince. He was gilded all over with thin leaves of fine gold, for eyes he had two bright sapphires, and a large red ruby glowed on his sword-hilt.
He was very much admired indeed. ‘He is as beautiful as a weathercock,’ remarked one of the Town Councillors who wished to gain a reputation for having artistic taste; ‘only not quite so useful,’ he added, fearing lest people should think him unpractical, which he really was not.
‘Why can’t you be like the Happy Prince?’ asked a sensible mother of her little boy who was crying for the moon. ‘The Happy Prince never dreams of crying for anything.’
‘I am glad there is some one in the world who is quite happy’, muttered a disappointed man as he gazed at the wonderful statue.
‘He looks just like an angel,’ said the Charity Children as they came out of the cathedral in their bright scarlet cloaks, and their clean white pinafores.
‘How do you know?’ said the Mathematical Master, ‘you have never seen one.’
‘Ah! but we have, in our dreams,’ answered the children; and the Mathematical Master frowned and looked very severe, for he did not approve of children dreaming.
One night there flew over the city a little Swallow. His friends had gone away to Egypt six weeks before, but he had stayed behind, for he was in love with the most beautiful Reed. He had met her early in the spring as he was flying down the river after a big yellow moth, and had been so attracted by her slender waist that he had stopped to talk to her.
‘Shall I love you said the Swallow’, who liked to come to the point at once, and the Reed made him a low bow. So he flew round and round her, touching the water with his wings, and making silver ripples. This was his courtship, and it lasted all through the summer.
Number of words 340 Précis should have 340/3= 113 to 118 words
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ANSWER

Précis ..

The Happy Prince’s statue stood on a stanchion. With eyes of sapphire, gold-draped torso and ruby-studded sword-hilt, the Prince towered over his adoring subjects.
Councillors said he was as beautiful as the weathercock, mothers prodded their kids to emulate him, and sad citizens drew comfort from his beaming face. However, a dour mathematics teacher was not amused to hear from some Church children that the Prince looked like a dream angel.
A swallow had stayed behind from its migratory flock to have a romantic chat with a Reed it loved. The Swallow had stumbled on the Reed while chasing a moth across a river. The Swallow performed acrobatics on the water all through the Summer.
Number of words 116.
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Learn to write good English through appropriatewords.

March 7, 2016 at 3:05 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Test your word power. —–

Fill in the blanks by selecting the most appropriate word from among the list of 10 words given at the bottom of the questions.

a. The Maoists continually raided the village and looted items like rice, vegetables, livestock, cash etc. On receiving the complaints from the harried villagers, the Police Superintendent posted pickets around the village on 24×7 basis. The step was intended to ——- the fears of the villagers.

b. All the five giant water supply pumps failed simultaneously. As a result, all taps in households and public places went dry causing great hardship to the inhabitants. The irate inmates of the town could take the suffering no longer and decided to lay siege to the Collector’s office. At noon, they shouted angry slogans. The wise Collector didn’t order police action to disperse them. Instead, he came out of his office to meet and speak to the people. He informed them that nearly 50 water tankers would soon reach them. It ——- the angry people, who left to await the arrival of the tankers patiently.

c. Later, the Minister telephoned the Collector and praised him for his ——–.

d. The vengeful murderous paramour of the young businessman wanted to marry the man so that she could enjoy his wealth and influence. But, the young man’s wife stood on the way. One day, the paramour had the wife abducted by a group of contract killers. She murdered her with her own hands, cut off her limbs, packed the ——— body in a bag, and threw it to a pond.

e. The ——— murder made headlines and the police launched a massive manhunt to nab the killer. The clever ———— of the crime fled her house to evade arrest. She remained ——— to the search team for nearly a year before the police could arrest her.

f. The political parties fought the election basing their campaigns on diametrically opposite ———-. The campaign was bitter, and long. In the debates, neither of the two candidates —— any ground to the other.

g. The typhoon ravaged the towns and villages along its way. Tress were uprooted, houses were broken and ——— were twisted snapping the wires. Power supply could be restored after almost a week.

List of words …. [Manifestos, Gruesome, Allay, Mollified, Sagacity, Ceded, Elusive, Mutilated, Perpetrator, Pylon]

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Answers …..

a. The Maoists continually raided the village and looted items like rice, vegetables, livestock, cash etc. On receiving the complaints from the harried villagers, the Police Superintendent posted pickets around the village on 24×7 basis. The step was intended to allay the fears of the villagers.

b. All the five giant water supply pumps failed simultaneously. As a result, all taps in households and public places went dry causing great hardship to the inhabitants. The irate inmates of the town could take the suffering no longer and decided to lay siege to the Collector’s office. At noon, they shouted angry slogans. The wise Collector didn’t order police action to disperse them. Instead, he came out of his office to meet and speak to the people. He informed them that nearly 50 water tankers would soon reach them. It mollified the angry people, who left to await the arrival of the tankers patiently.

c. Later, the Minister telephoned the Collector and praised him for his sagacity.

d. The vengeful murderous paramour of the young businessman wanted to marry the man so that she could enjoy his wealth and influence. But, the young man’s wife stood on the way. One day, the paramour had the wife abducted by a group of contract killers. She murdered her with her own hands, cut off her limbs, packed the mutilated body in a bag, and threw it to a pond.

e. The gruesome murder made headlines and the police launched a massive manhunt to nab the killer. The clever perpetrator of the crime fled her house to evade arrest. She remained elusive to the search team for nearly a year before the police could arrest her.

f. The political parties fought the election basing their campaigns on diametrically opposite manifestos. The campaign was bitter, and long. In the debates, neither of the two candidates ceded any ground to the other.

g. The typhoon ravaged the towns and villages along its way. Tress were uprooted, houses were broken and pylons were twisted snapping the wires. Power supply could be restored after almost a week.

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